Menene yaɗuwar bambance-bambancen Omicron?

Menene yaɗuwar bambance-bambancen Omicron?Yaya batun sadarwa?Dangane da sabon nau'in COVID-19, menene ya kamata jama'a su mai da hankali a cikin ayyukansu na yau da kullun?Duba amsar hukumar lafiya ta kasa don cikakkun bayanai

Tambaya: Menene ganowa da yaduwar Omicron bambance-bambancen?
A: A ranar 9 ga Nuwamba, 2021, an gano bambance-bambancen COVID-19 B.1.1.529 a karon farko a Afirka ta Kudu.A cikin makwanni biyu kacal, mutantan ya zama babban jigon sabbin cututtukan da suka kamu da cutar kambi a lardin Gauteng, Afirka ta Kudu, tare da haɓaka cikin sauri.A ranar 26 ga Nuwamba, wanda ya ayyana shi a matsayin "bambancin damuwa" na biyar (VOC), mai suna bambance-bambancen harafin Helenanci Omicron.Tun daga ranar 28 ga Nuwamba, Afirka ta Kudu, Isra'ila, Belgium, Italiya, Burtaniya, Austria da Hong Kong, China ta sanya ido kan shigar da mutan.Ba a sami shigar mutant a wasu larduna da biranen kasar Sin ba.An fara gano mutantan Omicron kuma an ba da rahotonsa a Afirka ta Kudu, amma ba yana nufin cewa cutar ta samo asali ne a Afirka ta Kudu ba, kuma wurin da aka gano ba lallai ba ne wurin da ya fito.

Tambaya: Wadanne dalilai ne zasu iya haifar da bayyanar mutan Omicron?

A: Dangane da bayanan da GISAID database COVID-19 ya raba, adadin wuraren maye gurbi na bambance-bambancen COVID-19 ya fi na duk bambance-bambancen COVID-19 a cikin shekaru 2 da suka gabata, musamman a cikin Spike.Ana hasashen cewa akwai dalilai guda uku kamar haka:
(1) bayan kamuwa da cuta tare da COVID-19, marasa lafiyar nakasassu sun ɗan ɗanɗana juyin halitta na dogon lokaci kuma sun tara adadi mai yawa na maye gurbi a cikin jiki.
(2) kamuwa da cutar COVID-19 a cikin wasu rukunin dabbobi ya sami juyin halitta mai daidaitawa a cikin tsarin watsa yawan dabbobi, tare da canjin canjin yanayi sama da na ɗan adam, sannan kuma ya zube ga mutane.
(3) maye gurbin ya kasance a cikin kwayar halittar COVID-19 na dogon lokaci a cikin ƙasashe ko yankuna na baya.Saboda rashin ikon sa ido, ba za a iya gano juyin halitta na tsaka-tsakin ƙwayar cuta a cikin lokaci ba.

Q: Menene watsawar Omicron bambance-bambancen?
A: A halin yanzu, babu wani tsari na bincike na bincike game da watsawa, cututtuka da ikon tserewa na Omicron mutant a duniya.Koyaya, mutantan Omicron shima yana da mahimman wuraren maye gurbi na amino acid na alpha (alpha), beta (beta), gamma (gamma) da delta (delta) sunadaran karu na farkon mutantan VOC guda huɗu, gami da rukunin maye gurbi waɗanda ke haɓaka alaƙar mai karɓar tantanin halitta da ƙwayoyin cuta. iya yin kwafi.Bayanai na sa ido kan cututtukan cututtukan dabbobi da na dakin gwaje-gwaje sun nuna cewa adadin wadanda suka kamu da mutant Omicron a Afirka ta Kudu ya karu sosai kuma an maye gurbinsu da wani bangare na mutant delta.Ikon watsawa yana buƙatar ƙarin kulawa da bincike.

Tambaya: Ta yaya bambance-bambancen Omicron ke shafar alluran rigakafi da magungunan rigakafi?
A: Bincike ya nuna cewa idan maye gurbin K417N, E484A ko N501Y ya faru a cikin furotin na COVID-19 S, za a haɓaka ƙarfin tserewa na rigakafi.An sami maye gurbin sau uku na “k417n + e484a + n501y” a cikin mutantan Omicron;Bugu da ƙari, akwai wasu maye gurbi da yawa waɗanda zasu iya rage ayyukan neutralizing wasu ƙwayoyin rigakafi na monoclonal.Babban matsayi na maye gurbi na iya rage tasirin kariya na wasu magungunan rigakafi akan mutantan Omicron, kuma ana buƙatar ƙarin sa ido da yin nazari akan ikon tserewa na rigakafin rigakafin da ake ciki.

Tambaya: Shin mutantan Omicron yana shafar abubuwan gano abubuwan gano acid nucleic a halin yanzu da ake amfani da su a China?
A: Binciken Genomic na Mutant Omicron ya nuna cewa rukunin maye gurbinsa bai shafi hankali da ƙayyadaddun abubuwan gano abubuwan gano acid nucleic a China ba.Wuraren maye gurbi sun fi mayar da hankali sosai a cikin babban bambance-bambancen nau'in furotin S, ba a cikin yanki na farko da bincike na yanki na gano acid nucleic da aka fitar a cikin bugu na 8 na Sabon rigakafin cutar huhu da tsarin kulawa na Coronavirus (ORF1ab) gene da N gene da cutar CDC China ta fitar ga duniya).Koyaya, bayanan da aka samu daga dakunan gwaje-gwaje da yawa a Afirka ta Kudu sun ba da shawarar cewa injin gano nucleic acid tare da maƙasudin gano kwayar halittar S mai yiwuwa ba za su iya gano ainihin halittar S na Omicron mutant ba.

Tambaya: Wadanne matakai ne kasashe da yankunan da abin ya shafa suka dauka?
A: Dangane da saurin bullar cutar Omicron a Afirka ta Kudu, kasashe da yankuna da yawa, ciki har da Amurka, Burtaniya, Tarayyar Turai, Rasha, Isra'ila, Taiwan da Hong Kong, sun hana masu yawon bude ido daga shiga. kudancin Afirka.

Tambaya: Menene matakan da China ta dauka?
A: Tsarin rigakafi da sarrafawa na "shigar da tsaro na waje da sake dawo da tsaron cikin gida" a kasar Sin har yanzu yana da tasiri ga mutantan Omicron.Cibiyar kula da cututtuka masu yaduwa ta Cibiyar Kula da Cututtuka da Cututtuka ta kasar Sin ta kafa wata takamaiman hanyar gano sinadarin nucleic acid ga mutantan Omicron, kuma ta ci gaba da gudanar da aikin sa ido kan kwayoyin halittar kwayar cutar don yiwuwar shigar da su.Matakan da ke sama za su yi tasiri ga gano ƙwayoyin Omicron a kan lokaci waɗanda za a iya shigo da su cikin China.

Tambaya: Menene shawarwarin wanda zai yi hulɗa da bambance-bambancen Omicron?
A: WHO ta ba da shawarar cewa duk ƙasashe sun ƙarfafa COVID-19's sa ido, bayar da rahoto da bincike, da kuma ɗaukar ingantattun matakan kiwon lafiyar jama'a don dakatar da yaduwar cutar.Ana ba da shawarar mutane su ɗauki ingantattun matakan rigakafin kamuwa da cuta, gami da kiyaye tazarar akalla 1m a wuraren taruwar jama'a, sanya abin rufe fuska, buɗe taga don samun iska, tsaftace hannaye, tari ko atishawa a gwiwar hannu ko tawul ɗin takarda, alluran rigakafi, da sauransu, da kuma guje wa zuwa wuraren da ba su da kyau ko kuma cunkoso.Idan aka kwatanta da sauran maye gurbi na VOC, ba shi da tabbas ko watsawa, cututtuka da ikon tserewa na ƙwayoyin cuta na Omicron sun fi ƙarfi.Za a samu sakamako na farko a cikin 'yan makonni masu zuwa.Koyaya, an san cewa duk bambance-bambancen na iya haifar da rashin lafiya mai tsanani ko mutuwa, don haka hana watsa kwayar cutar shine mabuɗin koyaushe.Sabon maganin kambi har yanzu yana da tasiri wajen rage munanan cututtuka da mutuwa.

Tambaya: Dangane da sabon nau'in COVID-19, menene ya kamata jama'a su mai da hankali a cikin ayyukansu na yau da kullun?
A: (1) Sanya abin rufe fuska har yanzu hanya ce mai inganci don toshe watsa kwayar cutar, kuma tana amfani da bambancin Omicron.Ko da an kammala dukkan aikin alluran rigakafi da alluran kara kuzari, ya zama dole a sanya abin rufe fuska a wuraren taruwar jama'a na cikin gida, jigilar jama'a da sauran wurare.Bugu da ƙari, wanke hannu akai-akai kuma yi aiki mai kyau a cikin iska na cikin gida.(2) Yi aiki mai kyau a cikin kula da lafiyar mutum.Idan ana zargin novel coronavirus alamun ciwon huhu kamar zazzabi, tari, gajeriyar numfashi, da sauransu, lura da yanayin zafin jiki akan lokaci da magani mai aiki.(3) Rage shigarwa da fita ba dole ba.A cikin 'yan kwanaki kaɗan, ƙasashe da yankuna da yawa sun yi rahoton shigo da mutantan Omicron a jere.Ita ma kasar Sin tana fuskantar hadarin shigar da wannan mutant, kuma har yanzu fahimtar duniya game da wannan mutant ba ta da iyaka.Don haka, ya kamata a rage tafiye-tafiye zuwa wuraren da ke da haɗari, ya kamata a ƙarfafa kariya ta mutum yayin balaguro, kuma a rage damar kamuwa da mutan Omicron.


Lokacin aikawa: Nuwamba-17-2021